Saccharomyces cerevisiae

This yeast species has been used in baking and fermenting alcoholic beverages for thousands of years

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Oily animal treatment is reviewed in the Gulf of Mexico

No need for scrubbing

No need for scrubbing with mayonnaise and handling the animals and birds for hours on end, a process that traumatizes animals and requires considerable man power. Trials show that spraying a SlickAway™ solution onto the feathers, a significant proportion of the crude oil (approximately (75-80%) came off by moving them around in a pool of water or by rinsing with a shower spray; an application baby oil or vegetable oil removes any remaining crude oil residue.

 

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Lewis Patton; Superintendent

"...Aquinoc is the only one that works.”

Quote from Lewis Patton; Superintendent Caughnawaga Golf Course: "We use environmentally designed practices on our course. I have tried many different biological products to treat our ponds and Aquinoc is the only one that works.”

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Scientific classification

Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Fungi Phyla and Subphyla:

Ascomycota • Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) •

Taphrinomycotina o Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts)

Basidiomycota • Agaricomycotina o Tremellomycetes • Pucciniomycotina o Microbotryomycetes

Yeasts are eukaryotic micro-organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species currently described they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. The yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used in baking and fermenting alcoholic beverages for thousands of years. It is also extremely important as a model organism in modern cell biology research, and is one of the most thoroughly researched eukaryotic microorganisms [1-5].

Yeasts are very common in the environment,

• Mainly isolated from sugar-rich material. Examples include naturally occurring yeasts on the skins of fruits and berries (such as grapes, apples or peaches), and exudates from plants (such as plant saps or cacti). • Some yeast is found in association with soil and insects.

• The ecological function and biodiversity of yeast is relatively unknown compared to those of other microorganisms.

• Yeasts including Candida albicans, Rhodotorula rubra, Torulopsis and Trichosporon cutaneum have been found living in between people's toes as part of their skin flora.

• Yeasts are also present in the gut flora of mammals and some insects. [6,7]

 Bioremediation of hydrocarbons

Some yeast has application in the field of bioremediation. One such yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, is known to degrade palm oil mill effluent, TNT (an explosive material) and other hydrocarbons such as alkanes, fatty acids, fats and oils. It can also tolerate high concentrations of salt and heavy metals, and is being investigated for its potential as a heavy metal biosorbent. [11-15].

Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons of different sizes. Different micro organisms break down hydrocarbons of different sizes.

Safety in aquatic environment

Yeast is often used by aquarium hobbyists to generate carbon dioxide (CO2) to fertilize plants in planted aquariums. In a homemade setup is widely used as a cheap and simple alternative to pressurized CO2 systems. The CO2 is used by plants in the photosynthesis process; it is very important to plant growth. [16]

It is completely safe for fish and other aquatic animals.

Human consumption:

Natural supplements and Probiotics for human consumption Yeast is used in nutritional supplements popular with vegans and the health conscious, where it is often referred to as "nutritional yeast". It is usually Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

It is an excellent source of protein and vitamins, especially the B-complex vitamins, whose functions are related to metabolism as well as other minerals and cofactors required for growth.

Some probiotic supplements use the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii to maintain and restore the natural flora in the large and small gastrointestinal tract. S. boulardii has been shown to reduce the symptoms of acute diarrhea in children, prevent reinfection of Clostridium difficile, reduce bowel movements in diarrhea predominant IBS patients, and reduce the incidence of antibiotic, traveler's, and HIV/AIDS associated diarrheas. [17-23]

Safety

Components

InocUsol:  Yeast and Candida utilis species are an important component of Inocucor’s basic formulation. Yeasts
are able to grow in different conditions. During their growth, yeasts metabolize organic compounds
and produce metabolic end products act as nutritional substrates for other members of the microbial
ecosystem present in Terrasol as well as naturally occurring yeasts in the environment, for example the Zygosaccharomyces genus.

This naturally occurring yeast present in all habitats, [8-10]. They are known as “spoilage yeasts” within the food industry because of their efficient degradation of food from cheese to bread to meat; through the activation of, these natural species in the natural environment Terrasol catalyses the degradation of organic waste and pollution.

 

References:

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

1. Kurtzman, C.P., Fell, J.W. 2006. "Yeast Systematics and Phylogeny—Implications of Molecular
Identification Methods for Studies in Ecology.", Biodiversity and Ecophysiology of Yeasts, The Yeast
Handbook, Springer. Retrieved January 7, 2007.

2. Bass D, Howe A, Brown N, Barton H, Demidova M, Michelle H, Li L, Sanders H, Watkinson SC, Willcock S, Richards TA. (2007). "Yeast forms dominate fungal diversity in the deep oceans". Proceedings. Biological Sciences/The Royal Society 274 (1629): 3069–77. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1067. PMID 17939990. PMC 2293941.

3. Jean-Luc Legras, Didier Merdinoglu, Jean-Marie Cornuet and Francis Karst. (2007.). "Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history". Molecular Ecology 16 (10):
2091–2102. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03266.x. PMID 17498234.

4. Ostergaard S, Olsson L, Nielsen J. (2000). "Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae".
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 64 (1): 34–50. doi:10.1128/MMBR.64.1.34-50.2000.
PMID 10704473. PMC 98985.
http://mmbr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10704473. Retrieved 2009-11-28.

5. Herrera, Carlos; María I. Pozo (10 February 2010). "Nectar yeasts warm the flowers of a winter- blooming plant". Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2010/02/05/rspb.2009.2252.abstract.

6. Oyeka CA, Ugwu LO. (2002). Fungal flora of human toe webs. Mycoses. 45(11-12):488-91. PMID
12472726

7. Martini, A (4 June 1992). "Biodiversity and conservation of yeasts". Biodiversity and Conservation 1:
324–333. doi:10.1007/BF00693768. http://www.springerlink.com/content/w540551582n04358/.

8. Kurtzman, C.P. 2006. Detection, identification and enumeration methods for spoilage yeasts. In: Blackburn, C. de. W, editor. Food spoilage microorganisms. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing. p. 28–54.

9. Fleet GH, Praphailong W. Yeasts, In: Spoilage of Processed Foods: Causes and Diagnosis, AIFST (2001), Southwood Press. pp. 383–97.

10. Loureiro V, Malfeito-Ferreira M (September 2003). "Spoilage yeasts in the wine industry".
International Journal of Food Microbiology 86 (1-2): 23–50. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00246-
0. PMID 12892920. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0168160503002460.

11. Oswal N, Sarma PM, Zinjarde SS, Pant A. (2002). "Palm oil mill effluent treatment by a tropical
marine yeast". Bioresource Technology 85 (1): 35–37. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00063-9. PMID 12146640.

12. Jain MR, Zinjarde SS, Deobagkar DD, Deobagkar DN. (2004). "2,4,6-trinitrotoluene transformation by a tropical marine yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589". Marine Pollution Bulletin 49 (9–10):
783–88. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.06.007. PMID 15530522.

13. Fickers P, Benetti PH, Wache Y, Marty A, Mauersberger S, Smit MS, Nicaud JM. (2005). "Hydrophobic
substrate utilisation by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, and its potential applications". FEMS Yeast
Research 5 (6–7): 527–43. doi:10.1016/j.femsyr.2004.09.004. PMID 15780653.

14. Bankar AV, Kumar AR, Zinjarde SS. (2009). "Environmental and industrial applications of Yarrowia lipolytica". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 84 (5): 847–65. doi:10.1007/s00253-009-
2156-8. PMID 19669134.

15. Bankar AV, Kumar AR, Zinjarde SS. (2009). "Removal of chromium (VI) ions from aqueous solution
by adsorption onto two marine isolates of Yarrowia lipolytica". Journal of Hazardous Materials 170
(1): 487–94. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.04.070. PMID 19467781.
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0304-3894(09)00641-4.

16. Centina-Sauri G, Sierra Basto G. (1994). "Therapeutic evaluation of Saccharomyces boulardii in
children with acute diarrhea". Annals of Pediatrics 41: 397–400.

17. Pedersen O, Andersen T, Christensen C. (2007). "CO2 in planted aquaria". The Aquatic Gardener 20
(3): 24–33.

18. Kurugol Z, Koturoglu G. (2005). "Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute
diarrhea". Acta Paediatrica 94 (1): 44–47. doi:10.1080/08035250410022521. PMID 15858959.

19. McFarland L, Surawicz C, Greenberg R. (1994). "A randomised placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in combination with standard antibiotics for Clostridium difficile disease". Journal of the American Medical Association 271: 1913–18. doi:10.1001/jama.271.24.1913.

20. Maupas J, Champemont P, Delforge M. (1983). "Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with
Saccharomyces boulardii: a double blind, placebo controlled study". Medicine Chirurgie Digestives
12 (1): 77–79.

21. McFarland L, Surawicz C, Greenberg R. (1995). "Prevention of β-lactam associated diarrhea by
Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo". American Journal of Gastroenterology 90 (3):
439–48. PMID 7872284.

22. Kollaritsch H, Kemsner P, Wiedermann G, Scheiner O. (1989). "Prevention of traveller's diarrhea.
Comparison of different non-antibiotic preparations". Travel Medicine International: 9–17.
http://www.sboulardii.com/Florastor_files/gd20051131228461.pdf.

23. Saint-Marc T, Blehaut H, Musial C, Touraine J. (1995). "AIDS related diarrhea: a double-blind trial of Saccharomyces boulardii". Sem Hôsp Paris 71: 735–41.