Rhodopseudomonas palustris

efficient in the biodegradation of hydrocarbons


Oily animal treatment is reviewed in the Gulf of Mexico

No need for scrubbing

No need for scrubbing with mayonnaise and handling the animals and birds for hours on end, a process that traumatizes animals and requires considerable man power. Trials show that spraying a SlickAway™ solution onto the feathers, a significant proportion of the crude oil (approximately (75-80%) came off by moving them around in a pool of water or by rinsing with a shower spray; an application baby oil or vegetable oil removes any remaining crude oil residue.



Lewis Patton; Superintendent

"...Aquinoc is the only one that works.”

Quote from Lewis Patton; Superintendent Caughnawaga Golf Course: "We use environmentally designed practices on our course. I have tried many different biological products to treat our ponds and Aquinoc is the only one that works.”

Rhodopseudomonas palustris

Scientific classification

Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Proteobacteria Class: Alpha Proteobacteria Order: Rhizobiales Family: Bradyrhizobiaceae Genus: Rhodopseudomonas Species: R. palustris Binomial name Rhodopseudomonas palustris

Rhodopseudomonas palustris is very efficient in the biodegradation of hydrocarbons. It is a purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacterium commonly found in soils and water that converting sunlight into cellular energy and by absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide and converting it to biomass.

This microbe can also degrade and recycle a variety of aromatic compounds that comprise lignin, the main constituent of wood and the second most abundant polymer on earth. Because of its intimate involvement in carbon management and recycling,

This bacterium has been found to grow in swine waste lagoons, earthworm droppings, marine coastal sediments and pond water. Even though purple non-sulfur bacteria are normally photoheterotrophic organism R. palustris has the ability to switch between the four different modes of metabolism that support life, which are: photoautotrophic, photoheterotrophic, chemoautotroph and chemoheterotrophic.

This means that this bacterium can grow with or without oxygen, it can use light, inorganic compounds or organic compounds for energy, it can acquire carbon from either carbon dioxide fixation or green plant-derived compounds and it can also fix nitrogen.

Bioremediation of hydrocarbons

Aromatic molecules constitute a significant fraction of hydrocarbon compounds and organic solvents in the environment.

The high resonance energy of the benzene ring of these aromatic molecules lends them an inherent stability and chemical ‘inertness’ and makes controlled chemical reduction difficult to achieve in the laboratory and in biological systems.

This results in an increased importance for environmental remediation because substantial amounts of toxic aromatic hydrocarbons, produced industrially as solvents, pesticides and components of gasoline, invariably accumulate in anaerobic ground waters and sediments

The earliest studies of anaerobic biodegradation of aromatics were conducted with photosynthetic bacterium which includes many species and strains. These studies suggested a reductive ring cleavage pathway through cyclohexane carboxylate and pimelic acid. Several researchers have since supported this general mechanism.

The range of substrates metabolized by certain photosynthetic bacteria strains has been shown over the years to include many phenolic, dihydroxylated, methoxylated aromatic acids and aromatic aldehydes; these studies often have been carried out on naturally occurring phenotypesisolated from the environment capable of reductive dehalogenation of aromatic compounds making photosynthetic bacteria some of the most versatile bacteria with respect to aromatic degradation.

Bacterial anaerobes exist which are able to oxidize various mononuclear aromatic compounds as their only source of energy and cellular carbon. This pathway has been characterized in only two species. The purple nonsulfer phototrophic proteobacterium (α-subgroup)

Rhodopseudomonas palustris uses various aromatic substrates as the sole source of cellular carbon during anoxic photosynthetic growth. Studies show that under anaerobic conditions, R. palustris uses reductive reactions to relieve the resonance of the aromatic ring to yield the benzoyl-coenzyme A (benzoyl-CoA) intermediate). Once ring reduction is achieved, benzoyl-CoA is further reduced by an enzyme, benzoyl-CoA reductase.

At this point, the two metabolic pathways diverge, with the next step in R. palustris, a second 2-electron reduction followed by ring opening in a hydrolytic reaction.



InocUsol  contains two Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains these are naturally occurring species isolated at the InocUsol laboratory. These strains are included in the basic formulation. R. palustris is found in all habitats including marine habits. It is safe for the environment and is used in Asia as food in fish farming and aquaculture. (DSL) in Canada. None of the microbes are genetically modified. They grow at different temperatures under aerobic and anaerobic conditions even in complex milieu rich in nitrates.



Rhodopseudomonas palustris

1. Balba, M. T., and W. C. Evans. 1977. The methanogenic fermentation of aromatic substrates. Biochem. Soc. Trans.5:302-304.

2. Guyer, M., and G. Hegeman. 1969. Evidence for a reductive pathway for the anaerobic metabolism of benzoate. J. Bacteriol.99:906-907.

3. Harwood, C. S., and J. Gibson. 1986. Uptake of benzoate by Rhodopseudomonas palustris grown anaerobically in light. J. Bacteriol. 165:504-509.

4. Schennen, U., K. Braun, and H.-J. Knackmuss. 1985. Anaerobic degradation of 2 fluorobenzoate by benzoate-degrading, denitrifying bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 161:321-325.

5. Williams, R. J., and W. C. Evans. 1975. The metabolism of benzoate by Moraxella species through anaerobic nitrate respiration Biochem. J. 148:1-10.

6. Staley E., Leslie Gregg-Jolly, 2000 .Independent study: Employment of degenerate primers for Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification of Thaurea aromatica and Rhodopseudomonas Benzoyl- CoA Reductase genes leads to amplification of non-homologous sequences

7. Egland, P.G. and Harwood, C. S. 2000. HbaR, a 4-Hydroxybenzoate Sensor and FNR-

8. CRP Superfamily Member, Regulates Anaerobic 4-Hydroxybenzoate Degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Journal of Bacteriology v. 182. 1:100-106.

9. Harwood, C. S., Burchhardt, G., Herrmann, H. and Fuchs, G. 1999 Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds via the benzoyl-CoA pathway. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 22: 439-458.

10. VARSHA S. KAMAL AND R. CAMPBELL WYNDHAM* Anaerobic Phototrophic Metabolism of 3- Chlorobenzoate byRhodopseudomonas palustris WS17 APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Dec. 1990, p. 3871-3873 Vol. 56, No. 12

11. Boll, M., Fuchs, G., Meier, C., Trautwein, A. and Lowe, D. 2000. EPR and Mössbauer Studies of Benzoyl-CoA Reductase. Journal of Biological Chemistry. v. 275. 41:31857-31868.

12. Egland, P. G., Pelletier, D. A., Dispensa, M., Gibson, J. and Harwood, C. S. 1997.A cluster of bacterial genes for anaerobic benzene ring biodegradation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 94: 6484-6849.

13. Pelletier DA, Harwood CS. (2000). 2-Hydroxycyclohexanecarboxyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase, an enzyme characteristic of the anaerobic benzoate degradation pathway used by Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Journal of Bacteriology, 182(10):2753-60,

14. Hawkins AC, Harwood CS. (2002). Chemotaxis of Ralstonia eutropha JMP134(pJP4) to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(2):968-72,