Bacillus subtilis

produces a natural surfactant

WhatsNew:

Oily animal treatment is reviewed in the Gulf of Mexico

No need for scrubbing

No need for scrubbing with mayonnaise and handling the animals and birds for hours on end, a process that traumatizes animals and requires considerable man power. Trials show that spraying a SlickAway™ solution onto the feathers, a significant proportion of the crude oil (approximately (75-80%) came off by moving them around in a pool of water or by rinsing with a shower spray; an application baby oil or vegetable oil removes any remaining crude oil residue.

 

CurrentNews:

Lewis Patton; Superintendent

"...Aquinoc is the only one that works.”

Quote from Lewis Patton; Superintendent Caughnawaga Golf Course: "We use environmentally designed practices on our course. I have tried many different biological products to treat our ponds and Aquinoc is the only one that works.”

Bacillus subtilis

Scientific classification

Scientific classification Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Firmicutes Class: Bacilli Order: Bacillales Family: Bacillaceae Genus: Bacillus Species: B.subtilis Binomial name Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg1835) Cohn 1872

Bacillus subtilis, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium commonly found in soil. Unlike several other well-known species, B. subtilis has historically been classified as an obligate aerobe, though in 1998 research demonstrated that this is not strictly correct. [1, 2]

• B. subtilis produces a natural surfactant and possess the ability to biodegrade hydro carbons

• B. subtilis is a facultative aerobe; • spores can survive extreme heat [5,6]

• Stimulates the gene expression of natural defense mechanisms in plants and animals [7-9]

• Suppress pathogenic micro organisms in soil through competitive inhibition and the production of natural antibiotics. [11]

Bioremediation of hydrocarbons

• Bacillus subtilis produces a biosurfactant, Surfactin, in the presence of crude oil. Laboratory experiments show that the biosurfactant production is not inhibited by the presence of the crude oil. [10]

• Breakdown of paraffin and lighter oils reducing viscosity in hydrocarbon polluted water.

• Can convert explosives into harmless compounds of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water [Wikipedia]

• Used to produce lipases, amylase and proteases, enzymes used in breakdown of complex molecules and fats in waste water treatment and remediation [In-Pipe Technologies Inc USA; Traitement Sol-eau Inc., Canada; Bionetix, UK, Inocucor Inc. Canada, ABBC, California,]

Environmental use

• B. subtilis strain QST 713 (marketed as QST 713 or Serenade) has a natural fungicidal activity, and is employed as a biological control agent

• Plays a role in safe radionuclide waste [e.g. Thorium (IV) and Plutonium (IV)] disposal with the proton binding properties of its surfaces

• Used to produce lipases, amylase and proteases, enzymes used in breakdown of complex molecules and fats in waste water treatment

• B. subtilis str. pBE2C1 and B. subtilis str. pBE2C1AB were used in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and that they could use malt waste as carbon source for lower cost of PHA production polyesters produced in nature by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids. They are produced by the bacteria to store carbon and energy. [1]

These plastics are biodegradeable and are used in the production of bioplastics. Horticulture Biological control agents like Bacillus subtilis offer an alternative and supplement to synthetic pesticides. Antibiotic production by bio-control strains of B. subtilis can play a major role in plant disease suppression. [11]

Known as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, bacillus subtilis colonizes the roots of plants metabolizing phosphates and nitrates, plant nutrients, into more bio available forms. Often used as a biological soil amendment and in composting facilities where the bacillus survives the thermophylic phase and enriches the effect of the compost..

Safety

Safety press release US government [3];

Used in treatment of human diseases and to stimulate IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies in immune suppressed cancer patients [7,8]

Other uses

• a model organism for laboratory studies

• a strain of B. subtilis formerly known as Bacillus natto is used in the commercial production of the Japanese food natto as well as the similar Korean food cheonggukjang

• popular worldwide before the introduction of consumer antibiotics as an immunostimulatory agent to aid treatment of gastrointestinal and urinary tract diseases. It is still widely used in Western Europe and the Middle East as an alternative medicine

• B. subtilis produces the proteolytic enzyme subtilisin. (serine endopeptidase) is a non-specific protease (a protein-digesting enzyme) used in the production of widely used in commercial products, for example in laundry[1] and dishwashing detergents, cosmetics, food processing[2], skin care ointments[3], contact lens cleaners, and for research purposes in synthetic organic chemistry.

Safety

Components

InocUsol:  The bacillus subtilis strains In the IN-B microbial formulations are specifically selected for their synergistic presence providing benefits in many habitats and capacity to grow at different temperatures and in aerobic conditions. In complex conditions and in the presence of nitrates they can also grow under anaerobic conditions. Their ability to produce biosurfactant, Surfactin, to breakdown crude oil does not detract from their beneficial effects on soil, plants and animals enabling the surrounding environment to regenerate and suppress infection.

 

References:

Bacillus subtilis

1. Madigan M, Martinko J (editors). (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall.
ISBN 0-13-144329-1.
2. Nakano MM, Zuber P (1998). "Anaerobic growth of a "strict aerobe" (Bacillus subtilis)". Annu Rev
Microbiol 52: 165–90. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.52.1.165. PMID 9891797.
3. Ambrosiano N (1999-06-30). "Lab biodetector tests to be safe, public to be well informed". Press
release. Los Alamos National Labs. http://www.lanl.gov/news/releases/archive/99-101.shtml.
4. Burke et al. 2004. Detection of molecular diversity in Bacillus atrophaeus by amplified fragment
length polymorphism analysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70(5):2786-90[2]
5. Ehrenberg CG (1835). Physikalische Abhandlungen der Koeniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften
zu Berlin aus den Jahren 1833–1835. pp. 145–336.
6. Cohn F (1872). "Untersuchungen über Bacterien". Beitr Biol Pflanzen 1(Heft 1): 127–224.
7. Ciprandi, G., A. Scordamaglia, D. Venuti, M. Caria, and G. W. Canonica. (1986). "In vitro effects of
Bacillus subtilis on the immune response.". Chemioterapia: 5:404–407.
8. Shylakhovenko, V.A. (2003 (June)). "Anticancer and Immunostimulatory effects of Nucleoprotein
Fraction of Bacillus subtilis.". Experimental Oncology 25: 119–123.
9. Mazza, P. (1994). "The use of Bacillus subtilis as an antidiarrhoeal microorganism.". Boll. Chim.
Farm. 133: 3–18.
10. Carmen Lucia Queiroga*; Lídia Regina Nascimento; Gil Eduardo Serra, (2003), Evaluation of paraffins biodegradation and biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis in the presence of crude oil Braz. J. Microbiol. vol.34 no.4 São Paulo Oct./Dec. 2003 Print version ISSN 1517-8382
11. Preprint od Abstract: Karen Kinsella, Cristian P. Schulthess, Thomas F. Morris and James D. Stuart (2010), Rapid quantification of Bacillus subtilis antibiotics in the rhizosphere, Soil Biology and Biochemistry Volume 42, Issue 7, Pages 1009-1192 (July 2010)